Archive for the 'Drugs' Category

Abciximab was used in conjunction with the intervention when deemed clinically indicated

Friday, October 10th, 2014 No Commented
Under: Drugs

Troponin T and CK-MB were measured in a nonrandomized, nonconsecutive cohort of patients (n = 57) during the period of September to November 2000. Patients were referred for elective coronary angiography and PCI with the diagnosis of progressive symptomatic coronary artery disease. Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) grade coronary artery blood flow was established in all patients. Troponin T and CK-MB were measured at 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 12 to 20 h (mean ± SEM, 17.9 ± 0.46 h) postprocedure.

Abciximab was used in conjunction with the intervention when deemed clinically indicated. The dose was 0.25 mg/kg IV followed by 0.125 pg/kg/min for 12 h after PCI. All patients received aspirin (325 mg) before the intervention, and patients receiving stent implantation received clopidogrel (375 mg) prior to stent placement. Subsequently, peak biomarker levels were determined at each time interval. Any increase in cTnT > 0.03 ng/mL (the value at which the coefficient of variability of the assay is < 10%)12 and CK-MB > 6.2 ng/mL was defined as a clinically significant elevation. Troponin T assays were performed using highly sensitive and precise third-generation assay. The cTnT assay has a coefficient of variability of 10% at a value of 0.035 ng/mL and 20% at 0.015 ng/mL.

The limit of detection is < 0.01 ng/mL. Fifty-six percent of these patients received IIb/IIIa inhibitor therapy in association with the procedure, and 39% were stented without IIb/IIIa inhibitor. Four of the 57 patients (7%) were treated with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) only therapy; of these, 1 patient received abciximab. Twenty four of 57 patients demonstrated cTnT elevations, with the majority receiving stent placement (92%) and abciximab (75%). Fourteen of 57 patients demonstrated elevations in CK-MB, with all patients receiving stents and 86% treated with abciximab.

Fourteen of 57 patients demonstrated elevations in CK-MB, with all patients receiving stents and 86% treated with abciximab. Postprocedure cTnT elevations were detected in 42% of patients. Of these, no patients demonstrated peak cTnT levels by 2 h after PCI. One of the 24 patients (4%) had peak cTnT elevation at 4 h after PCI (3.14 ng/mL), 3 of 24 patients (12.5%) had peak cTnT at 8 h after PCI (1.73 ± 0.48 ng/mL), and 20 of 24 patients (83%) had peak cTnT at 12 to 20 h (mean, 18 ± 0.5 h) after PCI (0.22 ± 0.06 ng/mL). The differences in cTnT levels late (12 to 20 h) were often substantial (range, 0.02 to 1.14 ng/mL; mean difference, > 0.1 ng/mL).

Drugs to prevent airway remodeling

Thursday, October 9th, 2014 No Commented
Under: Drugs

No therapy is currently demonstrated to unequivocally prevent or reverse airway remodeling. Here, we summarize the effects of current therapeutics and the factors contributing to airway remodeling drawn from both clinical studies and animal models.

Many drugs have been shown to prevent allergen-driven airway remodeling in animal models, but there are few studies that demonstrate their ability to reverse established airway remodeling. Since airway remodeling occurs even in childhood asthma, it is possible that airway remodeling is already present in many patients with asthma at the time of onset of clinical disease. It is, therefore, pertinent to ask ourselves if remodeling is even potentially reversible. In this respect, the recent publication by Leclere et al showing the partial reversal of ASM remodeling in horses with heaves, a naturally occurring asthma-like diseas e, following antigen avoidance as well as corticosteroid treatment Canadian Health&Care Mall provides a basis for optimism. The appropriate time to initiate therapeutic interventions deserves further consideration in addition to the search for novel therapeutic targets.

There are no studies reporting efficacy of therapies for cystic fibrosis airway remodeling. Indeed, this disease is not well modeled by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-deficient mice, but the porcine model shows more promise. Although bronchiectasis is likely intractable, the aspect of airway remodeling that may lead to the asthma syndrome often accompanying cystic fibrosis may be amenable to treatment.

Several clinical studies show that inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) reduces RBM thickness, although the clinical significance of such an effect is quite uncertain, and its impact on airway function seems unlikely to be major. Vascular remodeling reportedly improves with high-dose fluticasone. Whether the excessively rapid airway rewarming seen in patients with asthma after the cooling induced by hyperpnea challenge is attributable to excess vasculature or to vasodilation of existing vessels is not known. Its clinical significance is likewise uncertain but has been attributed a role in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. A decrease of a-smooth muscle actin area in peripheral airways harvested by transbronchial biopsy in subjects treated with ICS has been reported, suggesting reversibility of this lesion in peripheral airways. Erectile dysfunction medications Canada

Alcohol and Drugs

Monday, September 22nd, 2014 No Commented
Under: Drugs, Health care

Alcohol – a Good Servant and a Bad Master

Alcohol is the most widely used and abused drug among Irish men and is a major risk factor for ill-health and premature death. Alcohol-related problems are epidemic in Irish society, as a weekend visit to an accident and emergency department in any Irish hospital will testify. Problems associated with drinking alcohol include increased numbers of accidents and injuries; increased violence; increased absenteeism from work; a risk of suffocation through choking on one’s own vomit; alcohol poisoning, which is potentially fatal; and an association with many physical and mental health disorders, including depression and suicide.

There is no doubt that some men drink more when they are under stress. However, using alcohol as a means to de-stress may only give temporary relief of symptoms, followed the next day by a worsening of the stress feelings – one step forwards and two steps back! Using alcohol as a stress buster can make you more likely to become dependent on alcohol.

There can undoubtedly be significant health and social benefits to low-dose alcohol, if drunk by the right person at the right time in the right amount. But it is very much a case of‘less is more’.

How to Calculate the Number of Units in a Drink

The system of‘units’ of alcohol in drink was thought up years ago as a means of estimating the amount of alcohol in different drinks so as to work out how much alcohol someone is consuming. The strength of drink is measured as ‘ABV, which means alcohol by volume.

The most accurate way to calculate the number of units in an alcoholic drink is to look at the percentage of alcohol by volume (% ABV) of a drink. This equals the number of units of alcohol in 1 litre of that drink. For example, wine with 12 per cent ABV has 12 units of alcohol in a litre of wine, so if you drink half a litre of wine (500 mls), which is four small glasses, then you have had 6 units of alcohol.

Ordinary strength beer, at 4 per cent ABV, has 4 units of alcohol in a litre, so if you drink half a litre, which is just under a pint, then you will have had 2 units of alcohol. Strong beer, at 6 per cent ABV, has 6 units in a litre, so a half litre of this equates to 3 units. So you can see that the number of units of alcohol can vary widely from beer to beer, depending on the ABV.

One unit of alcohol is about equal to:

  • A half pint of ordinary strength beer (3-4% ABV) or
  • A small pub measure of spirits (40% ABV) or
  • A standard pub measure (50 mls) of sherry or port (20% ABV)

Calculating the number of units of alcohol in a drink isn’t rocket science and certainly doesn’t require a degree in maths.