Archive for the 'Cancer' Category

A few words about lung cancer

Monday, September 22nd, 2014 No Commented
Under: Cancer

This border-zone subset of stage IIIA patients, which lies between the generally resectable stage I and II tumors and unresectable stage IIIB patients, has been the subject of a wide variety of clinical trials incorporating various combinations of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Unfortunately, most published studies have significant limitations since they are not randomized, lack rigorous pretreatment staging, or involve a significant lack of homogeneity in the study population, making interpretation of the results difficult. There are a few more rigorous randomized trials, which will be discussed subsequently, that suggest a combined modality approach may be beneficial in stage IIIA disease. The approach showing the greatest promise in selected patients employs initial treatment (induction or neoadjuvant therapy) with chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery. Nevertheless, more widespread use of induction therapy followed by surgery for lung cancer has been used for only 7 years, and as a result there is little reliable data with larger patient groups. This lack of meaningful, larger, randomized data underscores the importance of enrolling patients in clinical trials whenever possible. Canadian health care mall shop

Since staging and treatment are so very interdependent, intraoperative staging with systematic mediastinal node sampling or dissection is critically important. Unless histologic conformation of mediastinal node status is obtained at the time of surgery, postoperative pathologic staging will be inaccurate, as will further treatment recommendations and the discussion of prognosis. Therefore, the standard of care in modern thoracic surgery dictates that mediastinal node sampling or dissection must be performed at the time of every lung resection for lung cancer.

Under the 1997 revised lung cancer staging system,1 stage IIIA encompasses all tumors with ipsilateral mediastinal lymph node metastases (T1–3, N2). Also included in this stage are tumors with resectable chest wall involvement and hilar node metastases (T3N1), added primarily because of similar survival rates. However, the treatment recommendations and applicable clinical trials for T3N1 are the same as for stage II. Therefore, for the purposes of these current guidelines, T3N1 tumors are discussed in the preceding chapter on stage II tumors. The present chapter will deal only with N2 disease.

Breast Cancer Diet

Tuesday, July 6th, 2010 No Commented
Under: Cancer

In the battle against breast cancer medicine may have acquired another valuable weapon – broccoli. A natural compound inside this delicious leafy green might just help in the fight as part of a breast cancer diet based on the results of a new bit of research.

Except for skin cancer, cancer of the breast is the most common cancer in U.S. women, though survival rates have been going up since 1990, due to both earlier detection and better treatments. Today there are 2.5 million survivors of breast cancer in the U.S.

The intriguing study involved mice, human breast cancer cell cultures, and a totally natural compound that comes from broccoli called sulforaphane. This substance has been studied before, but this latest work shows that the benefit of the substance comes from an ability to target and kill breast cancer stem cells.

The team of researchers administered different amounts of sulforaphane to mice who had cancer of the breast and used established measures to keep track of the number of stem cells in each tumor. The treated mice had a marked decrease in stem cells, and were unable to generate new tumors, though normal cells remained unharmed.

Tests on human breast cancer cells showed similar decreases in stem cells, at least in the lab. Stem cells are the ones that help tumors grow, targeting and removing these is considered a very promising approach to treating breast, and many other, cancers. Targeting those stem cells is essential for improving disease outcomes for women.

Chemotherapies used today aren’t able to target cancer stem cells, which is thought to be the reason that tumors recur, or are able to spread. Early detection makes for tumors that are small enough to be killed by treatment so no cancer stem cells remain.

Before you rush to the market to stock up on broccoli, know that the concentrations of sulforaphane used on the mice and cell cultures were higher than what you could get from eating the veggie itself. Side effects from using the extract are unknown, and while you might find it in supplement form, concentrations are not regulated and will vary widely.

You should probably hold off on adding sulforaphane supplements to your diet at this time, but keep an eye on this very promising line of research for future developments. There is a clinical trail in the early stages that will to test sulforaphane as a prevention and treatment, but it is not enrolling subjects at present hgh mexico.

Breast cancer treatments vary widely. Many women opt for surgery to remove the cancer, and are often treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy or hormone therapy to kill of any remaining cancer cells. New therapies, as shown by this research which suggest following a targeted breast cancer diet may help, are emerging all the time, and the hope for effective treatments (maybe even a cure) for breast cancer has never been brighter.

Coffee and Colon Cancer

Tuesday, June 15th, 2010 No Commented
Under: Cancer

There has been considerable medical research done through the years in an attempt to determine if drinking a lot of coffee and colon cancer are connected.

It seems the question may have been answered – at least for the time being.

The results of some recent research reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute concludes that people who drink coffee daily – even four or more cups – are at no more risk of developing colon cancer than other people who do not drink coffee at all.

Dr. Xuehong Zhang and his team of researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health examined about a dozen studies from North America and Europe.

Research done in the past has produced varying results about whether coffee and tea raise the risk of colon cancer. Sugary sodas, meanwhile, are definitely linked to obesity and other disorders that are thought to boost the odds colon cancer in particular.

Obesity has also recently been identified as the number one cause of liver disease in both the United States and Canada. Up till recently, cirrhosis owned the top spot.

Those who researched the issue of coffee and tea consumption at the Harvard School of Public Health also concluded that there’s no more risk of developing colon cancer among those who drink sweetened beverages daily. They did, however, find a small increase in the possibility of colon cancer among those who consumed a lot of tea — 32 oz or more a day. This conclusion, however, is weak and is worthy of further research, they said.

Researchers investigated results from more than 730,000 test subjects scattered around the entire planet, during a time frame that covered between 6 and 20 years. 5,600 people eventually got colon cancer. The researchers said the findings weren’t influenced much by factors such as gender, smoking and amount of alcohol consumption.

Given the enormous number of subjects included in the population studies, subjects’ beverage choices and volumes varied greatly. There weren’t a lot of adult subjects who drank more than two sweetened beverages a day, which led some on the editorial staff of the Journal to believe that this study won’t be the last word on cancer risk and any connection to sweetened beverages.

But for coffee and tea drinkers, at least, the results of in this investigation will certainly be received as welcome news.

So have a java – in fact, have all you want.

Treatment For Brain Tumors

Friday, April 30th, 2010 No Commented
Under: Cancer

Many persons with brain cancers want to know everything regarding their disease as well their treatment. Nevertheless, stress and shock after diagnosis of brain cancer may make it harder for everything. The patient really found it hard to be thinking of what to ask for the doctor.

It sometimes helps in making a listing of queries before going to the doctor. To aid in recalling what the physician says, the patient may take remarks or ask if she/he can use tape recorder. Others wish to bring a family member or friends with them as they talk with the doctor.

The patient might ask for referral. Specialists who cure brain cancers include neuro-oncologists, neurosurgeons, radiation oncologist and medical oncologists.

Before the start of treatment, the patient might wish for second opinion regarding diagnosis and treatment plan. Various insurance groups require 2nd opinion; others might cover 2nd opinion when the physician or patients request it.

The following are the ways in order to seek for second opinion:

Doctors of the patient might pass on the patient to other specialists. At cancer institutions, several specialists frequently act together as team. Cancer Information Services can inform callers regarding adjacent treatment centers. A local or state medical society, an adjacent hospital or medical school can generally give the names of the specialists.

ABMS have listing of physicians who have undergone training needs and have met particular education and were able to pass field examinations. The directory can be found in several public libraries. The ABMS directory contains the names of specialists along with educational background and their specialty.

The physician may describe choices in treatment and may discuss the outcome expected with every treatment option. The doctor as well as the patient may work together in order to create a treatment preparation that can fit the needs of the patient. Treatment is dependent on the amount of factors, which includes the type, size, location and grade of the cancer. For a few types of brain tumor, it is necessary for the doctor to know whether the tumor cells were seen in the CSF or cerebrospinal fluid.

The treatment depends on the number of reasons, counting the type, location, size, and grade of tumor. For a few types of brain cancer, the doctor also needs to know whether cancer cells were found in the cerebrospinal fluids.

A patient may ask the following questions to the physician before the start of treatment:

  • Is the tumor benign or malignant?
  • What was the type of brain tumor the patient has?
  • What are the choices of treatment?
  • What were the advantages of every type of treatments?
  • What were the probable side effects and risks of every treatment?

The most important thing to consider before submitting to any treatment is the preparedness of the patient.

Treating Cervical Cancer

Wednesday, April 14th, 2010 No Commented
Under: Cancer

First whitish, then cervical cancer 2 years later. That’s Suheni’s experience. That Woman, 40-year-old as teacher was unsteady. ‘I’m confused and desperate. How can I attacked by cancer, ‘said Suheni.

cervical cancer

Cervical cancer stage II B. That’s verdict of physician from Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta. Diagnosis of doctors in mid-August 2006 was like a big hammer hitting Suheni’s head. That Cancer cells came with whites and pain cues on the lower abdomen as the symptoms. Two years since 2004, she suffered albus fluor or whites. To tame the malignant cells that attacked the uterus, Suheni had to undergo chemotherapy 6 times and radiation 25 times. Beside for killing cancer cells, therapeutic effects caused Suheni tired, lethargic, decreased appetite, and often sleepy. No wonder, if she was not eager to teach in school.

After getting therapy, the cancer cells were dormant for a while. However, 10 months ago the cancer cells returned more vicious. Suheni had to undergo more therapy. Although 6 times having chemotherapy, cancerous cells still entrenched in the cervix. Where, she must pay 7 million per chemotherapy.

Patients are usually unaware that cancer attacking the cervix. Because cancer cells need long time to develop, 10-20 years old. The whites that Suffered had reddish brown color and smell. Cervical cancer patients, usually have vaginal bleeding. Patients also feel pain in lower abdomen or pelvic cramps, and pain during pissing, with watery white liquid.

According to Globocan research, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), in Indonesian in 2002 found 41 cases and 20 deaths per day because of cervical cancer. That Malignant cancer is caused by infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) through sexual contact. Also the smoking habit in women is also a trigger of cervical cancer. With chemotherapy, cervical cancer appears again like that occurred in Suheni. Therefore she followed her relative’s advice to consume rodent tuber extract.

In November 2008, Suheni had been consuming rodent tuber and pearls grass extracts each 2 capsules 3 times daily. ‘My body feels fit,’ she said. Suheni’s Persistence was not in vain because 4 months after consuming rodent tuber and pearls grass regularly, she recovered. Final laboratory examination on February 2009 showed that cancer cells lost its grip in her cervix. Now she still taking the herbs 1 capsule a day. ‘To keep cervical cancer not recur again,’ she said.

radiotherapy for cervic cancer


Suheni recovery from cancer is not a coincidence. Rodent tuber is known as anticancer. Rubiyantoro, herbalist from Kampoeng Herbal, Bekasi, West Java, said that rodent tuber help fight cancer. The Plant also helps patients avoiding cancer after surgery. Other function is eliminating the adverse effects of chemotherapy like hair loss. Those who undergo chemotherapy and regularly consume rodent tuber proved their appetite back, uneasy hair falling, and decreasing pain in the body.

According to Wahyu Suprapto, a lecturer in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Airlangga, anticancer properties of rodent tuber is because of its ability to block the development of cancer cells and tumors. That’s in line with research-Sheen Choon Lai, a researcher from the Center for Drug Research, University Sains Malaysia. The result proved rodent tuber Typhonium flagelliforme could inhibit cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis.

According to Choon IC50-concentration values of rodent tuber that causes death 50% of the population tested cell-hexane and dichloromethane (DCM) are respectively 53.89 µg / ml and 15.43 µg / ml. That means only with a dose of 53.89 mg / ml and 15.43 mg / ml of hexane and DCM 50% of rodent tuber could inhibit cancer cell growth.

In addition, Peni Indrayudha’s research, from the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Central Java, proved the efficacy of rodent tuber inhibited the progression of cancer cells because rodent tuber contains Ribosome Inactivating Proteins (rips). Rips is a toxic protein that can inhibit protein synthesis. That’s because the rips can cut RNA and supercoiled double-stranded DNA to nick-loop quasi-circular and linear. When protein synthesis inhibited, cancer cells growth also inhibited. Peni incubate the plasmid DNA with 3 μl leaf extract Typhonium flagelliforme. The concentration of protein contained in the extract, varied 10 mg / ml, 20 mg / ml, 30 mg / ml, 40 mg / ml, and 50 mg / ml. The result in protein concentration 10 mg / ml plasmid DNA truncated became nick circular. Meanwhile, at a concentration of 20-50 mg / ml DNA was cut into a linear form. With anticancer properties of rodent tuber that can conquer cancer, Suheni suffered.

Important Information About Mesothelioma

Tuesday, April 13th, 2010 No Commented
Under: Cancer

Mesothelioma is a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos on a regularly, particularly in the workplace between the 1930’s and 1970’s as well as now again, after 9-11. Mesothelioma can take several decades to form, generally several decades. Consequently, people that worked with asbestos, unknowingly, conceivably 30-40 years ago are only currently being diagnosed with this fatal disease. Mesothelioma cancers can have an effect on a number of critical organs: the most common form being Pleural Mesothelioma; which affects the lungs.

What most people don’t know are, the latest treatments, support groups available and their legal rights.

Currently there are various forms of treatments available for mesothelioma patients, some of these treatments are opted as a more successful method, or one that targets the abnormal cells, individually or reduces pain for the patent better than other treatments will. A few of the most well-known and common treatments are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

Support groups are developed to allow others in the same situation or those who have come through the same situation to assist families who are currently facing the same challenges. It presents not only a way for the family to learn more about mesothelioma but also allows them to share their experiences and emotions

It is that critical to find a lawyer, for representation, as soon as possible after the initial diagnosis of mesothelioma, due to state by state statutes of limitations (time limits) that you have to file your claim. Missing the statue of limitation could cause you to be considered to be ineligible for action

There are also many questions you should know such as Do I have the right to file a claim if I think that my health has been affected by asbestos? Who will you file my claim against? Finding an experienced mesothelioma / asbestos related attorney is extremely important.

Breast Augmentation

Friday, March 12th, 2010 No Commented
Under: Cancer

Many women looking to undergo breast augmentation are concerned with the risk of cancer related to silicone implants, as well as the risk of the implant obscuring breast tissue during a mammogram when detecting cancer.

When accusations arose in the 1980’s regarding silicone implants and links to cancer, autoimmune diseases and other systemic diseases, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) decided to enact a 30 month testing period for the implants. After that time, officials felt there was insufficient data to prove whether or not the implants could be linked to cancer. At this point the silicone implants were banned for cosmetic use, however, were still approved for use during breast reconstruction subsequent to mastectomy and breast cancer. In 1993, after the FDA felt thorough testing had been completed, silicone implants were approved for cosmetic use under the guideline that continued controlled clinical studies would be perform. To this day no sufficient evidence has been provided to link silicone implants to any form of cancer or related disease.

In fact, according to a Swedish study of 3,400 women, breast augmentation patients had a 30% decreased rate of breast cancer. A similar study of 13,000 women in the United States showed that women with breast implants also had a decreased rate of breast cancer. This is believed to be related to the decreased temperature of the breast, compression of breast tissue and stimulation of immunological response. Experts believe it may also be attributed to the fact that the majority of patients stem from a higher socioeconomic class, where patients have tendencies toward better nutrition and overall health.

Interestingly, studies from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium also show that breast cancer is detected at approximately the same time whether or not the patient has implants. Furthermore, when breast cancer is discovered, patients with breast implants are more likely to have a lower grade of the cancer.

When it comes to detecting breast cancer, implants can obscure breast tissue by 15%-50% depending on the surgical technique performed during the breast augmentation and the technique used to perform the mammogram.

Both silicone and saline implants display as a white, mostly opaque oval on the mammogram. One does not obscure visualization more than the other. However, implants placed under the muscle significantly increase visibility of the breast tissue.

When scheduling your appointment to receive a mammogram, it is very important to inform the practice that you have undergone breast augmentation. Mammograms for patients with breast implants require more time to properly examine the breast.

To gain maximum exposure of the breast, a trained technician will push the implant back as far as possible toward the chest wall and pull the breast tissue forward. This technique can improve readings by up to 92%. Breast augmentation patients undergoing mammograms also require 4 views of the breast rather than 2 in order to view as much of the breast as possible.

Mobile Phones Can Cause Cancer

Saturday, March 6th, 2010 No Commented
Under: Cancer

It is a controversial issue which has been a matter of contention ever since mobile phones were introduced back in the nineteen eighties. Do mobile phones cause cancer? We all use them. Well over 2 billion people have cell phones worldwide, which makes the topic very important.

Mobile phones essentially work by transmitting and receiving radio frequency microwave radiation, which in itself sounds dangerous. The government has released guidelines recommending that children under 16 should not use cell phones and adults should only use them for short calls. Does this mean the government is concerned there is actually a risk, especially to children who are still developing? If you are concerned for the well being of your child you can obtain more information from the Health Protection Agency of Radiation Protection.

Both Maine and San Francisco in the United States plan on making it compulsory for handset manufacturers to place cancer risk labels on phones, similar to cigarette boxes. Indeed you can now buy phone shielding products, which are said to protect us from the harmful effects of phone radiation.

All of this does sound very worrying. But no solid evidence has ever been found to support the notion that mobile phones do cause cancer. In 2006 a research study involving over 2,500 people concluded that no link could be found between the use of mobile phones and contracting a type of brain tumor called Glioma. A Danish study using over 400,000 people conducted over 21 years found no increased risk of forming a brain tumor from mobile phone use. Also most of these studies have looked at the use of older analogue handsets, which emit far higher levels of radiation than digital phones which most people use nowadays. Using a digital phone greatly reduces the exposure of radio wave radiation. All of this information can be found on the Cancer Research UK site.

If cell phones were harmful surely by now there would be irrefutable evidence to prove that they did cause cancer. This is simply not the case. There are also plenty of other appliances such as televisions, DVD players and Microwaves which also emit similar amounts of radiation and no evidence has been shown to imply that these electronic devices cause cancer either.

There is so much evidence to suggest that cell phones do not cause cancer it cannot really be ignored. You will always find scare-mongers and journalists who want to be controversial. The fact is well over 2 billion people use mobile phones in the world, most of them every day. If they did cause cancer there would have been a massive surge in the occurrence of brain tumors. Has this been reported, no it has not. If you want to use your mobile phone safely do not drive whilst using it. According to recent studies you are four times more likely to have a crash while using it.

Until proven without reasonable doubt and when new legislation comes in making it compulsory for all manufacturers in the UK to advertise the potential health dangers of using mobile phones there is no immediate cause for worry.

Breast Cancer Symptoms in Men

Friday, February 19th, 2010 No Commented
Under: Cancer, Men's Health

There is a common misconception that men cannot have breast cancer. Men often ignore the symptoms of cancer or mistake them for other illnesses. Factors such as social stigma and embarrassment contribute to the increasing denial among men of the possibility of getting cancer of the breast The development of male cancer ( of the breast) is largely similar to what women encounter. Males around the ages of sixty and seventy are more prone to the incidence of this type of cancer than any other age group.

Cancer Statistics

The latest American Cancer Society estimates for male breast cancer shows that in 2009 about 1,910 cases will be diagnosed with about 440 fatalities. Approximately one percent of the cancer cases, cancer of the breast cases, affect men. The lifetime risk for developing this type of cancer is at about one in a thousand. Recent studies also shows that the prognosis for this type of cancer for both men and women remains the same and the outlook is still hinged on what stage the cancer was diagnosed.

As in any other cancer, early detection and treatment is vital to an individual’s survival. Thus, men are encouraged to be more aware of the cancer’s signs and symptoms. Educating males in combating the social stigma brought about by cancer also assist in helping men against this type of cancer.

Detecting breast cancer in men

Knowledge and awareness on the signs and symptoms of cancer are very valuable in delivering the earliest possible detection and treatment for men with this cancer of the breast. Here are some of the symptoms associated with cancer of the breast.

  • Painless development of lump or thickening of the breast
  • Scaling and redness of the nipple and surrounding area
  • Indentation or retraction in the nipple area
  • Bloody or clear nipple discharge

Risk Factors

There are several factors that increase the risk of men getting cancer of the breast. Some of which like genetics and age are uncontrollable. However, some risk factors such as poor diet, alcohol consumption and smoking can be controlled, so it best to learn what we need to avoid. Below is a list of breast cancer risk factors in men.

  • The average age of male breast cancer diagnosis is sixty-seven and breast cancer commonly occurs in men between the ages of sixty and seventy.
  • One in five men with breast cancer had a female relative who had breast cancer too.
  • Those who have undergone prior radiation treatment on the chest area have a greater likelihood for breast cancer.
  • About five to ten percent of male breast cancers are inherited. Genetic defects on the CHEK-2, p53 tumor suppressor, BRCA2 and BRCA1 genes increases a person’s cancer risk. These genes usually help prevent cancer by keeping cells from growing abnormally.
  • Those who had a history of Klinefelter syndrome, a congenital abnormality wherein males had an extra X chromosome resulting to lower levels of male hormones and increased female hormones.
  • Those who had taken estrogen-related drugs have a higher risk for breast cancer. Breast cancer cells are known to have estrogen receptors which improve the cancer’s ability to progress.
  • Those who had liver diseases are also at risk as the body’s estrogen activity increases while the androgen activity reduces when a person is experiencing liver diseases, such as cirrhosis of the liver.
  • Those who are obese may also be at risk for male breast cancer due to increased number of fat cells. Fat cells produce estrogen from androgen, thus increasing the estrogen concentration in the body.
  • Excessive alcohol drinking also promotes breast cancer in men mainly due to the fact that alcohol consumption increases liver diseases and fat accumulation.

Treatment options for cancer of the breast in men

There are a number of treatment methods available for men with cancer of the breast. These methods do not differ from those done for women. Cancer staging is done to determine the best breast cancer treatment option a patient needs. Here are some of the treatment options available.

Surgery – There are several surgical options used to remove breast cancer in men these include simple mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Simple mastectomy involves removal of all breast tissue including lobules, ducts, fatty tissue and skin including the nipple and areola.

In a modified radical mastectomy, the surgeon removes the entire breast and a portion of the underarm lymph nodes. The surgeon may also remove chest wall muscle if the cancer has spread to that area. The lymph nodes will be examined to check if the cancer has spread and additional treatment is necessary.

Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a procedure developed to locate sentinel nodes, lymph nodes receiving drainage from a breast tumor. Sentinel nodes are removed for biopsy to check for cancer development to the other lymph nodes. This procedure decreases the risk of complications as removal of a single node is necessary for examination.

Radiation Therapy – High energy x-rays are used to kill cancer cells during a radiation therapy. Administered by a radiation oncologist, the therapy is commonly done before surgery to shrink the tumor or after surgery to eliminate remaining cancer cells. Radiation therapy is often painless but may result in tiredness in men who had undergone therapy and tenderness of the breast.

Hormone Therapy
Biological Therapy

Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to kill cancer cells that have spread to other parts of the body after breast cancer surgery. The treatment is usually scheduled every two to three weeks after surgery for about three to six months.

Chemotherapy may be administered intravenously or in pill form. Most patients choose oral chemotherapy as this reduces the need to visit the clinic and can be done at home.

Some chemotherapies target the cancer itself reducing damage to healthy cells. Still, side affects like hair loss, fatigue, vomiting and loss of cognitive abilities may occur.

Estrogen receptor positive breast cancers rely on estrogen to induce the development of breast cancer cells. Hormone therapy is administered in order to prevent estrogen from bonding to sites in the body where cancer cells may have spread. The male hormone, androgen also helps in the growth of cancer cells. Thus, limiting both estrogen and androgen levels are essential in abating the spread of cancer cells.

In biological therapy, a biological response modifier is used to stimulate the body’s immune system to combat cancer. This helps in enhancing the body’s natural defense against specific diseases such as cancer. However, biological therapy is still in clinic trials.

You do not want any type of cancer to reach these stages. This is why Thit is extremely essential that you go and see a doctor as soon as possible, the moment you see any of these possible cancer symptoms given above manifesting themselves. Listen to your body “talk”, and follow the signs.